Five-time Olympian Shane Kelly started his Olympic career by being pipped for the gold medal by the last rider in the field, Moreno of Spain, in the 1000 metres time trial at Barcelona 1992. Four years later at Atlanta 1996, Kelly, now the reigning world champion, was the hot favourite to win the gold medal in the time trial. In the event, his foot slipped from the bike's pedal whilst starting and his race was ruined. He rebounded with a bronze medal, behind Queally (GBR) and Nimke (GER), in the time trial at Sydney 2000.
At Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008, Kelly competed in a total of five events, with a best placing of a bronze medal, behind Ryan Bayley and Escuredo, of Spain, in the keirin in the Greek capital. In the other events, the team sprint in Athens and Beijing, the time trial in Athens and the keirin in Beijing, Kelly finished fourth each time.